CDS General English Spotting the Errors Conjunctions Study Material

CDS General English Spotting the Errors Conjunctions Study Material

CDS General English Spotting the Errors Conjunctions Study Material: The ‘Combined Defence Service’ (CDS) Examination is conducted twice a year by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) to induct officers in the Indian Defence Forces.

CDS General English Spotting the Errors Conjunctions Study Material

CDS General English Spotting the Errors Conjunctions Study Material

Spotting the Errors ‘CONJUNCTIONS’ Definition and its Rules

Conjunction 

A conjunction is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, clauses or sentences.

e.g. – and, but, while, though, although, lest etc.

Spotting the Errors Rules of Conjunctions

  1. ‘Scarcely’ and ‘Hardly’ should be followed by when and not by than.
    1. g. –Scarcely had I started for the institute, when/ than the rain started.
    2. Hardly had he arrived, when he had to leave again.
  2. ‘No sooner’ is followed by than and not by when.
    1. g.- No sooner had I left, than / when the rain started.
    2. No sooner did he arrive, then / than he had to leave.
  3. ‘Seldom or never’ and ‘seldom if ever’ are both correct, but ‘seldom or ever’ is incorrect.
    1. g. – He seldom or never goes to see movies in a theatre.
  4. ‘Either-or’, ‘neither-nor’, ‘not only-but also’, ‘both-and’, ‘wheather-or’ etc., should be followed by the same parts of speech or of the same function.
    1. g.- He neither agreed to my proposal nor to his. (false)
    2. He agreed neither to my proposal nor to his. (True)
    3. Neither he helps his mother by money nor by other means. (False)
    4. He helps his mother neither by money nor by other means. (True)
    5. He helps his mother not only by money but also by other means. (true)
  5. The conjunctions ‘though’ (or although) and ‘but’ do the work of setting one statement against another by way of oppositions or contrast and therefore, the correlative of ‘though’ is ‘yet’ or a comma (,).
    1. g. – Though he worked hard yet he could not top the class.
  6. After the adjective ‘other’ (which is regarded as a kind of comparative), the only word that can be correctly used for contrasting one thing with another is ‘than’. The prepositions from, but, except in such a connection are wrong.
    1. g.- He had no other option but/ than to fight.
    2. He had another reason from/ than what he professed.
    3. She had no other claim to the post except/ than her good looks.
  7. Conjunction ‘that’ is not used in the following cases
    1. Direct narration.
  • g. – He said, “I am smart”.
  1. Indirect speech, if the sentence is interrogative.
  • g.- He asked who he was.
  1. In a ‘not only….. but also’ sentence, the verb should agree with the noun or pronoun mentioned second, because this is the part being emphasized.
    1. g. –Not only the teacher but also the students are enjoying themselves.
  2. ‘Such as’ is used to denote a category, whereas ‘such that’ emphasizes the degree of something by mentioning its consequences.
    1. g.- Yuvraj played such an innings as played by the best batsman.
    2. Yuvraj played such and innings that it took the match away from the opposition.
  3. ‘Both’ is followed by and not by as well as. Besides, both has positive sense and cannot be used in negative sentences.
    1. g. –Both Amit as well as/and his friends are coming.
    2. Both Amit and his friends are not coming. (False)
    3. Neither Amit nor his friends are coming. (True)
  4. ‘Unless’ means if not and therefore, it should not be used in a sentence or clause which is already negative.
    1. g. – Unless you do not work hard, you will fail. (False)
    2. Unless you work hard, you will fail.(True)
  5. ‘Lest’ expresses a negative sense and therefore cannot be used with not. ‘Should’ is always used with ‘lest’.
    1. g. – Walk steadily, lest you should not fall. (False)
    2. Walk steadily, lest you should fall. (True)
  6. When ‘suppose’ is used in the beginning of a sentence to denote a command or a request, it is not followed by if.
    1. g. – Suppose if you are caught, what will happen (False)
    2. Suppose you are caught, what will happen to your parents? (True)
  7. Avoid the error of using ‘than’ for ‘from’ after the adjective different.
    1. g. – He took a different role than / from the ones he has been doing for long.
  8. ‘Nothing else’ should be followed by but, not by than.
    1. g. – It is nothing else but/ than your carelessness, that you have failed in the exam.
  9. The use of President tense after as if and as though should be avoided. (Subjunctive Mood).
    1. g. – He looks as if he suspects something. (False)
    2. He looks as if he suspected something. (True)

SPOTTING THE ERRORS of Conjunctions

SET 7

ERRORS OF CONJUNCTION

Directions (Q. Nos. 1-30) Which part of the given sentence has an error? In case, there is no error, choose option (d).

  1. Although they listen to me (a)/ but their actions (b)/ prove otherwise. (c)/ No error (d)
  2. He treats (a)/ us as (b)/ slaves. (c)/ No error (d)
  3. Most of the girls are doing (a)/ their post graduation because (b)/ they may get good husbands. (c)/ No error (d)
  4. Such was his pronunciation (a)/ as (b)/ I could not understand him. (c)/ No error (d)
  5. He asked (a)/ that who (b)/ I was. (c)/ No error (d)
  6. I am interested (a)/ in such books (b)/ that are interesting. (c) / No error (d)
  7. Each member of the alliance (a)/ agrees to take such action (b)/ that it deems necessary. (c)/ No error (d)
  8. She looked at him (a)/ in such distress (b)/ as he had to look away. (c)/ No error (d)
  9. This film is interesting (a)/ and the previous one (b)/ was boring. (c)/ No error (d)
  10. It is difficult to know (a)/ whether (b)/ you are selected or not. (c)/ No error (d)
  11. He has no chance (a)/ than to start (b)/ his own business. (c)/ No error (d)
  12. They had hardly finished (a)/ their meals that at once (b)/ they resumed their duty. (c)/ No error (d)
  13. I don’t know whether (a)/ Raj is equally (b)/ good as Vimal. (c)/ No error (d)
  14. He (a)/ will return (b)/ on either Monday or Tuesday. (c)/ No error (d)
  15. He is (a)/not honest and not (b)/ truthful. (c)/ No error (d)
  16. He has no other business (a)/ but to play (b)/ with computers. (c)/ No error (d)
  17. Be smart (a)/ not only in dress (b)/ and also in action. (c)/ No error (d)
  18. Hardly had I reached the airport (a)/ where I learned about (b)/ the powerful bomb explosion. (c)/ No error (d)
  19. My book has been missing (a)/ from my room (b)/ till yesterday. (c)/ No error (d)
  20. The manager of the bank was busy; (a)/ so he asked them to come and see him (b)/ between two to three in the afternoon. (c)/ No error (d)
  21. No sooner did the Sun set (a)/ than we had ours dinner (b)/ and went to sleep. (c)/ No error (d)
  22. Gunjan asked me (a)/ what was (b)/ the time. (c)/ No error (d)
  23. Rohit took a different route (a)/ than the one (b)/ he usually takes the one (b)/ he usually takes for going to office. (c)/ No error (d)
  24. Komal looks as if (a)/ she wants (b)/ to go home. (c)/ No error (d)
  25. What would you do (a)/ if you were (b)/ marooned on an island? (c)/ No error (d)
  26. Both Nilakshi (a)/ as well as Shivani (b)/ are going to school. (c)/ No error (d)
  27. Koel is not only (a)/ lazy but also (b)/ insane. (c)/ No error. (c)/ No error (d)
  28. Rakshit seldom (a)/ or ever (b)/ goes to play outside. (c)/ No error (d)
  29. Priya is fair (a)/ but her child (b)/ are dark coloured. (c)/ No error (d)
  30. Simran had (a)/ another reason to declare her assets (b)/ from what she said. (c)/ No error (d)

EXPLANATIONS

  1. (b) The correlative of ‘Although’ is ‘yet’ and not ‘but’. Hence, we should remove ‘but’ and use ‘yet’ in place of it.
  2. (d) The sentence is correct.
  3. (b) As the sentence starts with ‘Most of’ , ‘because’ will not be used. We would replace it by ‘so that’.
  4. (b) As per the rule, ‘such…. that’ is used for mentioning consequences. Hence, we would use ‘that’ in place of ‘as’.
  5. (b) As per the rule, ‘that’ is not used in indirect speech if the sentence is interrogative. Hence, we would remove ‘that’ from the sentence.
  6. (b) The conjunction ‘such’ is not needed in the sentence. We need to delete it from the sentence.
  7. (d) The sentence is correct.
  8. (c) In the given sentence, ‘that’ would be used in place of ‘as’. (For explanation refer to Ans. 4)
  9. (b) As a comparison is made in the given sentence, we would use ‘but’ in place of ‘and’.
  10. (d) The sentence is correct.
  11. (b) We would use ‘but’ in place of ‘than’ as ‘but’ is used for the work of setting one statement (‘He has no chance’) against another (‘to start his own business’).
  12. (b) ‘That at once’ needs to be deleted from the sentence and should be replaced by ‘when’.
  13. (b) In the given sentence, ‘as’ should be used in place of ‘equally’ is an adverb.
  14. (c) ‘on either’ is not the correct usage. As per the rule ‘Either….. or’ should be followed by same parts of speech. Hence the sentence should be: ‘He will return either on Monday or on Tuesday’.
  15. (b) Instead of using ‘not’ two times in the given sentence, we should use ‘neither….. nor’. So, part (b) would become ‘neither honest nor’.
  16. (b) As per the rule, after ‘other’ the only words that can be correctly used for contrasting one thing with another is ‘than’. Hence, we should use ‘than’ in place of ‘but’.
  17. (c) The correct usage is ‘not only….. but also’. Hence, we would use ‘but’ in place of ‘and’.
  18. (b) As per the rule, ‘hardly’ should be followed by ‘when’. Hence, we would use ‘when’ in place of ‘where’.
  19. (c) ‘Till’ does not make sense in the sentence. It should be changed to ‘since’.
  20. (c) ‘Between’ takes ‘and’ and not ‘to’. So, we would replace ‘to’ by ‘and’ in the sentence.
  21. (b) ‘Ours’ should be replaced by ‘our’ to make the sentence correct.
  22. (d) No error.
  23. (b) ‘Than’ should be replaced by ‘from’ to make the sentence correct.
  24. (b) As per the rule, the use of present tense should be avoided after ‘as if’. Hence, we should change ‘wants’ to ‘wanted ‘ to make the sentence correct’.
  25. No error
  26. (b) As per the rule, ‘both’ is followed by ‘and’ and not by ‘as well as’. So, we would replace ‘as well as’ by ‘and’ to make the sentence correct.
  27. (d) No error
  28. (b) Usage of ‘seldom or ever’ is incorrect.
  29. (c)As ‘child’ is singular, we would replace ‘are’ by ‘is’ to make the sentence correct.
  30. (c) As per the rule, ‘from’ should not be used with ‘another’. So, we would replace it by ‘than’ to correct the sentence.

 

 

 

 

 

 
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