CDS General English Spotting The Errors Adverb Study Material
CDS General English Spotting The Errors Adverb Study Material : The “Combined Defence Services” (CDS) Examination is conducted twice a year by the Union Public Commission (UPSC) to induct officers in the Indian Defence Forces, Indian Army,Indian Navy and Indian Airforce. And this paper is also consist of General English Question which are given below with practice sets and its theory.
ADVERB Sectionwise theory and its Practice sets
An adverb tells more about a verb, an adjective or another adverb.
e.g. – He is running fast.
Here, ‘fast’ is the adverb which tells how he is running.
Kinds of Adverb
1.Adverb of Time Answers the question when, for how long or how often a certain thing happens.
e.g. – I shall meet you tomorrow.
We were late by two hours.
The newspaper arrives daily.
2.Adverb of Place Answers the question where.
e.g. – I shall meet you in the market.
I shall meet you there.
We were studying in the institute.
3.Adverb of Manner Answers the question how.
e.g. – He is sitting quietly.
He is dancing like Hritik Roshan.
4.Adverb of frequency It tells us how often an action takes place.
e.g. – Delhi Police is with you, always.
5.Adverb of Degree or Quantity These tell us how much or in what degree or to what extent.
e.g. – We have studied enough.
There is something fishy out here.
There is little doubt of his success.
Rules of Adverbs
Rules of Adverbs are helpful to understand and solve the practice sets of Adverbs
- So and Too They should not be used without their co-relatives ‘that’ and ‘to’.
e.g. – He is so rich. (False)
He is so rich that he can buy anything. (True)
He is too intelligent. (False)
He is too intelligent to pass any exam. (True)
- Difference between very and much
- ‘Very’ is used in positive degree and ‘much’ is used in comparative degree.
e.g. – He is much intelligent. (False)
He is very intelligent. (True)
He is much intelligent than his brother. (True)
- ‘Very’ is used with V1 + ing. ‘Much’ is used with V3.
e.g. – The match became much/ very interesting.
The crowd became much/ very interested in the match.
- Some words retain their form when they become adverbs: Fast, first, next, back, ill, better, best, etc.
- Adverbs ending in –ly form the comparative by adding ‘more’ and superlative by adding ‘most’.
e.g. – This work is more beautifully done than that work.
The scenery of Kashmir is most lovely of all.
- Adverbs of manner, place and time are generally placed after the object of the verb.
e.g. – We visited Kashmir last year.
He is talking on and on.
He is sitting quietly.
- MPT Rule If adverbs of manner, place and time are used in a single sentence, then the sequence followed is that of MPT.
e.g. – I read the book yesterday meticulously at home. (f) I read the book meticulously at home yesterday. (True)
- When an adverb modifies an adjective or another adverb, the adverb comes before it.
e.g. – Her dress was ready nearly. (False)
Her dress was nearly ready. (True)
- Adverbs of frequency such as always, ever, never, seldom, frequently, etc, are always placed before the verb they modify.
e.g. – He sometimes comes late.
She always looks beautiful.
- ‘Enough’ is both an Adjective and an Adverb. As an adverb, it is always placed after the adjective it modifies. As an adjective it is placed before the noun.
e.g. – He is enough intelligent. (False)
He is intelligent enough to win the competition. (True)
He has enough money to spend.
In the last sentence, ‘enough’ is used as an adjective.
- ‘Only’ and ‘even’ should be placed immediately before the word intended to modify.
e.g. – I worked only two sums. (False)
I only worked two sums. (True)
- An adverb can be placed at the beginning of a sentence, when it is intended to qualify, not any word in particular, but sentence as a whole.
e.g. – Fortunately, he was not present at that time.
Interestingly, the PM went in the metro.
- ‘Ever’ is sometimes misused for ‘never’. ‘Seldom or never’ and ‘seldom if ever’ are both correct, but ‘seldom or ever’ is incorrect. In the same manner, ‘little if anything’ is correct, but ‘little or anything’ is wrong.
e.g. – He seldom or never passes in the examination with fair means.
He seldom if ever parties.
- ‘Else’ should be followed by ‘but’, and not by ‘than’.
e.g. – It is nothing else than / but his carelessness which has led to his failure.
Aishwarya Rai is nothing else but a statue of beauty.
- ‘Rather’ and ‘Fairly’ can mean moderately. But ‘fairly’ is used with favourable adjectives and adverbs while ‘rather’ is used with unfavorable adjectives and adverbs.
e.g. – She is fairly intelligent but my sister is rather stupid.
He did fairly well in her exams but his sister did rather badly.
He grew up in rather unusual circumstances.
- ‘Rather’ can also be used when we are correcting something that we have just said.
e.g. – The process is not a circle but rather a spiral.
- ‘Rather’ is also used in case of preference- would rather, had rather, rather than are used to express preference.
e.g. – I would rather study than sleep.
I prefer getting up early rather than sleeping late.
- We use ‘rather’ before verbs that introduce our thoughts and feelings, in order to express our opinion politely, especially when a different opinion has been expressed.
e.g. – I rather think that he was telling the truth.
I rather like the decorative effect.
- Adverb ‘as’ should be used to introduce predicative of the verbs such as regard, describe, define, treat, view, know.
e.g. – I regard him as my elder brother.
The newspaper described the situation as horrible.
Biology is defined as the study of nature.
- Adverb ‘as’ should not be used to introduce predicative of the verbs such as name, elect, think, consider, call, appoint, make, choose.
e.g. – He was considered the best dancer of his time.
He was appointed Governor by the President.
Saurav Ganguly was chosen by the Caption.
He was called dynamic by his mates.
- Negative Adverbs should not be used with the words that are already negative in sense. So two negatives in the same sentence should be avoided. , nowhere, never, nothing, hardly, scarcely, neither, barely, rarely are some of the Adverbs. The verbs in such category are ‘deny’, ‘forbid’, while the conjunctions are ‘unless’, ‘until’, ‘lest’ and ‘both’.
e.g. – No one scarcely practices all the exercises. (False)
Scarcely anyone practices all the exercises. (True)
I rarely went to meet nobody/ anybody in my childhood.
She hardly knows anything/ nothing about me.
He does nothing without ever/ never consulting me.
He has denied that he was not going there.
Walk steadily, lest you should not fall.
Both of them are not coming. (False)
Neither of them is coming. (True)
- Consider the following cases
(a) ‘Coward’, ‘miser’, ‘niggard’, ‘rogue’ are Nouns.
‘Cowardly’, ‘miserly’, ‘niggardly’, ‘roguish’ are Adjectives.
e.g. – An officer is trained never to fight cowardly/ in a cowardly manner.
Although he seems brave, he is actually a coward.
It was a sheer cowardly act of violence.
- ‘Fast’ retains its form in both Adjectives and Adverb.
e.g. – He is fast (Adjective).
He is running fast (Adverb)
- ‘Direct’ and ‘Directly’ are adverbs. Direct means straight and Directly means at once.
e.g. – Don’t stop anywhere, return home direct.
Don’t stop now, return home directly.
- ‘Manly’, ‘masterly’, ‘slovenly’, ‘monthly’, ‘weekly’, ‘sickly’, ‘friendly’ are Adjectives and should not be confused with Adverbs.
e.g. – He is earning fifty thousand rupees monthly/ a month.
He is a friendly old man.
- The use of ‘never’ for ‘not’ is incorrect, because ‘never’ means not ever.
e.g. – I never remember ever having met him. (False)
I do not remember ever having met him. (True)
We met the other day, but he never referred to the matter. (False)
We met the other day, but he did not refer to the matter. (True)
- No sentence should begin with ‘Due to’. It must be used after some form of the verb ‘to be’.
e.g. – Due to bad weather, the match was abandoned. (False)
It was due to bad weather, the match was abandoned. (True)
- Cent-per cent It should be hundred per cent.
- Do the needful It should be do what is necessary.
“SPOTTING THE ERRORS” Practice set with solution and it is based on the given above theory
SET 6 of Sectionwise theory
ERRORS OF ADVERB
Directions (Q. Nos. 1-30) Which part of the given sentences has an error? In case, there is no error, choose option (d).
- Firstly, you should think (a)/ over the meaning of the words (b)/ and then use them. (c)/ No error (d)
- The driver tried his best (a)/ to avert the accident by bringing the car (b)/ to a suddenly stop. (c)/ No error (d)
- The Sunshine hotel was fully equipped (a)/ to offer leisure stay (b)/ to its clients. (c)/ No error (d)
- The technician reminded them (a)/ to have a thoroughly cleaning (b)/ of the machine after each use. (c)/ No error (d)
- I am (a)/ much glad (b)/ that you have won the trophy (c)/ No error (d)
- He is too coward (a)/ to make it (b)/ happen.(c)/ No error (d)
- People invent new machines (a)/ when they think (b)/ different/ (c)/ No error (d)
- A man entered the tavern (a)/ and asked for some bread and cheese (b)/ with a decided foreign accent. (c)/ No error (d)
- Watch how careful (a)/ the sparrow knits the straws (b) / into one another to form a best, (c)/ No error (d)
- On hearing the news (a)/ he went directly (b)/ to the Manager’s room. (c)/ No error (d)
- They reached home (a)/ safely (b)/ although they started late. (c)/ No error (d)
- It is the duty of every citizen (a)/ to do his utmost to defend (b)/ the hardly won freedom of the country. (c)/ No error (d)
- The principal was (a)/ enough kind to (b)/ grant me scholarship. (c)/ No error (d)
- It is nothing else (a)/ than foolishness (b)/ that led to his downfall. (c)/ No error (d)
- The tried travelers were bundled off (a)/ to the nearly cop house till anyone (b)/ could come and vouch for their credentials. (c)/ No error (d)
- I advised my brother to engage two coolies instead of one (a)/ because the luggage was too much heavy (b)/ for a single coolie to handle. (c)/ No error (d)
- There is no one else (a)/ whom I esteem (b)/ than your father. (c)/ No error (d)
- Although I was (a)/ in Delhi last month (b)/ I never met him. (c)/ No error (d)
- When I got (a)/ home I was (b)/ too exhausted. (c)/ No error (d)
- I did not know hardly (a)/ anyone in the city (b)/ and so I felt lonely. (c)/ No error
- My mother works (a)/ very quicker than (b)/ I at embroidery. (c)/ No error (d)
- She is sure a great singer (a)/ and no other singer (b)/ is a match for her. (c)/ No error (d)
- It is better to be frugal (a0/ but don’t be miser (b)/ in giving alms. (c)/ No errors (d)
- I refused to (a)/ accompany him because (b)/ I was so tired. (c)/ No error (d)
- The student came to the classroom (a)/ lately and was punished (b)/ by the teacher. (c)/ No error (d)
- He looks full of energy (a)/ today because he (b)/ soundly slept last night. (c)/ No error (d)
- She had barely nothing (a)/ to eat when she came (b)/ to me last month. (c)/ No error (d)
- It had been too cold (a)/ the whole month and we preferred (b)/ to stay in the plains. (c)/ No error (d)
- The quickly brown fox (a)/ jumped over (b)/ the lazy dog. (c)/ No error (d)
- He slowly (a)/ went to open (b)/ the lock. (c)/ No error (d)
- (a)‘Firstly’ is used to introduce a first point or reason. It does not make sense in the given sentence. So, we would use ‘First’ instead of ‘Firstly’.
- ‘Suddenly stop’ in the sentence does not make sense. Hence, we would change it to ‘sudden stop’ to make the sentence meaningful.
- (b) ‘Leisure’ as an adjective and does not make sense in the sentence. It should be changed to its adverb form i.e. ‘leisurely’.
- (b) ‘Thoroughly cleaning’ is incorrect. It should be ‘thorough cleaning’.
- (b) ‘Much’ is used in comparative degree and ‘very’ is used in positive degree. So, we should use ‘very’ in place of ‘much’ in the given sentence.
- (d)The sentence is correct.
- ‘Different’ in the sentence does not convey the right meaning of the sentence. It must be changed to ‘differently’.
- (c) ‘Decided’ is incorrect and does not make sense with the sentence. It should be changed to its adverb form ‘decidedly’.
- ‘Careful’ in the given sentence should be changed to ‘carefully’ to convey the right meaning of the sentence.
- ‘Direct’ means straight and ‘directly’ means ‘at once’. Hence, we would use ‘direct’ in the sentence instead of ‘directly’.
- (d)The sentence is correct.
- (c) ‘Hardly won freedom’ means ‘negligibly won freedom’ and does not make sense in the sentence. It should be changed to ‘hard won freedom’.
- (b) ‘Enough Kind’ does not make sense. It should be changed to ‘Kind enough’.
- (b) ‘Than’ used in the sentence is incorrect. It should be changed to ‘but’.
- (b) ‘Anyone’ should be replaced by ‘someone’ to make the sentence meaningful.
- (b) ‘Too’ and ‘much’ are not used together. It should be ‘too heavy’.
- (b) ‘More’ should be used after ‘esteem’ to make the sentence meaningful.
- (c) ‘Never’ in the given sentence should be replaced by ‘did not’ to make the sentence meaningful.
- (c) ‘Too’ should be replaced by ‘very’ to make the sentence grammatically correct.
- (c) ‘Did not know’ should be removed and ‘knew’ should be added after ‘hardly’ to correct the sentence.
- (b) ‘Very quicker’ should be replaced by ‘quicker’ to make the sentence correct.
- (a) ‘Sure’ needs to be changed to its adverb form ‘surely’ to make the sentence correct.
- (b) ‘Miser’ needs to be changed to ‘miserly’ to make the sentence grammatically correct.
- (c)‘So’ needs to be replaced by ‘very’ to correct the sentence.
- (b) ‘Lately’ does not convey the right meaning. It should be changed to ‘late’.
- (c) ‘Soundly slept’ needs to be changed to ‘slept soundly’ to make the sentence meaningful.
- As per the rule, two negative words cannot be used together in a sentence. In the given sentence, ‘barely’ and ‘nothing’ are negative words’. So, we would replace ‘nothing’ by ‘anything’.
- (a) ‘Too’ needs to be replaced by ‘very’ to make the sentence grammatically correct.
- (a) ‘Quickly’ does not make sense. So, we replace it by its adjective form i.e. ‘quickly’.
- (d)No error.