CDS General English Spotting The Errors Adjective Study Material
CDS General English Spotting The Errors Adjective Study Material : Pathfinder for CDS Entrance Examination comprehensively covers complete syllabus of entrance examination as prescribed by UPSC, and guides the aspirants about how to get through it.
ADJECTIVE sectionwise theory for practice and its practice set for preparation
An adjective is a word used with a noun or a pronoun to add something to its meaning.
Kinds of Adjective
They are derived from proper noun.
Proper Nouns Proper Adjectives
My, our, your, his, their, her, its are called possessive adjectives.
Adjectives of Quality
It shows the traits of a person or a thing.
e.g. – Flowers were plucked fresh. (False)
Fresh flowers were plucked. (True)
|It pertains to words.
It means mouth.
|His verbal words spoken orally are more dangerous than his figures on paper.|
|Shared by all concerned.
In relation to each other.
|It is common to everyone that India and Pakistan do not share a very good mutual understanding.|
Adjectives of Quantity
It shows how much of a thing is meant.
e.g. – Any, some, little, etc.
Confusing Words – helpful to solve and understand the concept of Adjective
|Little||‘Little’ has a negative meaning and it means hardly any.||He has little hope of recovery. (i.e., he is not likely to recover).|
|A Little||‘A little’ has a positive meaning. It means some, though not much.||He has a little hope of recovery. (i.e. he may possibly recover).|
|The little||‘The little’ means not much but all there is.||The little money Bihar had has gone to Jharkhand.|
|Any||‘Any’ is used in negative or/and interrogative sentences.||I shall not buy any material from this shop.|
|Some||‘Some’ is used in affirmative sentences.||I shall buy something from this shop.|
However, if the question is a request or a command, ‘some’ replaces any.
e.g. – Can I buy something from your shop?
Can I have some money?
Why don’t you take something?
Adjectives of Number
It shows how many persons or things are meant or in what order a person or thing stands.
It is of three types, which are as follow
(a) Definite Numeral Adjective These adjectives denote exact number or order of persons/things.
e.g. – The first three benches of this class.
(b) Indefinite Numeral Adjective Few, many, less, more, some, any, etc.
- Use of Less, Little and Fewer
‘Less’ denotes quantity and ‘fewer’ denotes number.
e.g. – Not less than/No fewer than 10000 persons died in the Gujarat earthquake.
(c) Distributive Numeral Adjective Each and Every
- ‘Each’ is used in speaking of two or more things. The important point is that the things should be limited in number.
- ‘Every’ is used in speaking of more than two persons or things, where the things, where the things are not limited.
e.g. – Each/Every day is important for someone or the other.
|Other||‘Other’ means second of the two.
|Call the other boy who is with you.|
|Another||‘Another’ means additional one.||There is another boy also who wants to meet you.|
It is used to express surprise.
e.g. – What an ideal!
- What a piece of work!
These adjectives are used to ask questions.
e.g. – Which picture do you like the most?
It points out which person or thing is meant.
e.g. – This boy is intelligent.
- The plural forms ‘these’ and ‘those’ are often wrongly used with the singular nouns ‘kind of’ and ‘sort of’.
e.g. – These sort/ sorts of questions are frequently asked in the exam.
Comparison of Adjectives
When only one case is there.
e.g. – Meerut is a big city.
When two cases are there.
e.g. – Meerut is bigger than Ghaziabad.
She is better than anybody else in the school.
When more than two cases are there.
e.g. – Meerut is the biggest city of West Uttar Pradesh
He is the most corrupt politician of all in the country.
|‘Later’ and ‘latest’ refer to time.
‘Latter’and ‘last’ refer to position.
Latter: Former (opposite)
Last: First (opposite)
Later: Earlier (opposite)
Latest: Earliest (opposite)
|Tempest was the last/ latest play of Shakespeare.
What is the last/ latest news?
He came latter/ later than me.
The first half of the movie was very entertaining but the latter wasn’t.
|For blood relations only.
For both persons and things.
|I am his elder brother.
My friend is older than me.
|Geographical distance (comparative degree). Its superlative is ‘farthest’.
Besides (in addition to)
|Mumbai is farther than Gwalior. (False)
Mumbai is farther than Gwalior from Meerut. (True)
Kanyakumari is the farthest place in the South. (True)
I would like to add further meaning to the studies. (True)
|It shows distance
It shows position
|The nearest post-officers is next to the college.|
Rules of Degrees
- Double comparative and double superlative are not used together.
- g. – She is the most prettiest girl. (False)
- She is the prettiest girl. (True)
- This boy is more sweeter than that boy. (False)
- This boy is sweeter than that boy. (True)
- The Adjective ending in –er (e.g. wiser) should be used as ‘more wise’ while comparing two qualities of the same person or thing.
- g. – He is wiser/ more wise than strong.
- He is more wise/ wiser than his brother.
- In comparative cases, ‘other’ is used with than.
- g. – He is more intelligent than his classmates. (False)
- He is more intelligent than his other classmates. (True)
- He is stronger than any person in the class. (False)
- He is stronger than any other person in the class. (True)
- This boy (who has come from outside). (True)
- The Nile is longer than any river in the world. (False)
- The Nile is longer than any other river in the world. (true)
- In superlative cases, other is not used.
- g. – Samundragupta was the most powerful of all Kings of his time.
- Adjectives expressing qualities, that do not have different degrees, cannot be compared.
- g. – Perfect, complete, circular, finish, square, empty, impossible, enough, full, unique, wonderful, marvelous, excellent, ultimate.
- This glass is more full than that glass. (False)
- I have had more than enough. (False)
- Similar things should be compared when we compare two things.
- e.g. – The climate of Dehradun is better than Meerut. (False)
- The climate of Dehradun is better than that of Meerut. (True)
- The pollution in Delhi is greater than any other city in India. (False)
- The pollution of Delhi is greater than that of any other city in India. (True)
- The comparative degree is generally followed by ‘than’, but the following comparative adjectives are followed by the preposition ‘to’.
- g. – Superior, inferior, junior, senior, prefer, preferable, elder, younger prior, etc.
- He is senior to me.
- I prefer tea to coffee.
- The Jallianwala massacre happened prior to the Non-Cooperation Movement.
- If there is a gradual increase, it is expressed with two comparatives and not with positives.
- g. – Indian fielding is getting better and better day-by-day.
- He became more and more intelligent while studying.
- When two adjectives qualify the same noun, both the adjectives should be represented in the same degree.
- g. – Taj Mahal is the most beautiful and the most sought-after place in India.
- He is the best and the most honest minister of our time.
- The adjectives ‘little’ and ‘few’ are not made to qualify the nouns, ‘quantity’ and ‘number’. Instead ‘small’ should be used to qualify these nouns.
- g. – Would you please lend me a few/ small number of books for a month?
- I asked him not to waste even a little/ small quantity of food.
- Do not say ‘two first’ for ‘first two’
- g. – I saw only the two first episodes of the serial. (False)
- I saw only the first two episodes of the serial. (True)
- When two adjectives in different degrees of comparison are used in the same sentences. Each should be complete in itself.
- g. – He is as good if not better than his brother.(False)
- He is as good as if not better than his brother.(True)
- Worth + V1+ing is placed after the same noun it qualifies.
- g. – Taj Mahal is a monument worth visiting.
- Computer is a commodity worth buying.
Rarely, a little
|He studies hard. i.e. works very hard in studies)
He hardly studies. (i.e. he rarely studies)
|Lately he is coming late from the office.|
|Although he was near the truck, he nearly escaped.|
“SPOTTING THE ERRORS” Practice Set of the given above theory of Adjective
ERRORS OF ADJECTIVE
Directions (Q. Nos. 1-20) Which part of the given sentences has an error? In case, there is no error, choose option (d).
- There were (a)/ no less than fifty persons (b)/ present in the room. (c)/ No error (d)
- Few remarks (a)/ that he made were (b)/ offensive to my friend. (c)/ No error (d)
- It is a (a)/ worth watching documentary (b)/ and you must not miss it. (c)/ No error (d)
- Of all the students (a)/Rita was less worried (b)/ when the date for the annual examination was announced. (c)/ No error (d)
- Even the most perfect person (a_/ in the world is said to have erred (b)/ when there was time to perform. (c)/ No error (d)
- In the opinion of everyone (a)/ she is wiser (b)/ than beautiful. (c)/ No error (d)
- The tiger is (a)/ as swift as (b)/ any animal. (c)/ No error (d)
- He had to cut a sorry figure (a)/ when he realized that he had (b)/ no any money in his purse. (c)/ No error (d)
- Of the three ministers (a)/ who do you think (b)/ is going to prove more successful? (c)/ No error (d)
- She is the best (a)/ and beautiful girl (b)/ of our class. (c)/ No error (d)
- I requested him (a)/ to lend me few books (b)/ that might help me in my studies. (c)/ No error (d)
- He is the tallest (a)/ to lend me few books (b)/ that might help me in my studies. (c)/ No error (d)
- I was surprised (a)/ than anybody (b)/ in the school. (c)/No error (d)
- My brother is elder (a)/ than me although (b)/ with somewhat anger. (c)/ No error (d)
- Little care on your part (a)/ than me although (b)/ with somewhat anger. (c)/ No error (d)
- Privatisation offers the most ideal situation (a)/ for consumers because private sector (b)/ is very conscious of quality. (c)/ No error (d)
- She is better than (a)/ any girl that studies (b)/ in our institute. (c)/ No error (d)
- The latest chapter of this novel (a)/ is the most comprehensive of all (b)/ the chapters in the book. (c)/ No error (d)
- She was not punished (a)/ though she came (b)/ latter than I. (c)/ No error (d)
- Neither she is intelligent (a)/ nor hard working (b)/ and still she expects to secure first class. (c)/ No error (d)
- It is all the more better (a)/ if you work (b)/ in my company. (c)/ No error (d)
- It was bitter cold (a)/ so we preferred (b)/ not to go out that morning. (c)/ No error (d)
- No animal (a)/ is as sacred to the Hindus (b)/ as the cow is. (c)/ No error (d)
- There is no name (a)/ more glorious than Sardar Patel (b)/ in the history of India. (c)/ No error (d)
- It very often happens (a)/ that a man who talks most (b)/ does less. (c)/ No error (d)
- From all accounts I learn that (a)/ he is the best and honest member (b)/ of the new cabinet. (c)/ No error (d)
- The flood situation (a)/ this year is worst than (b)/ that prevailed in the last year. (c)/ No error (d)
- Geometry and Drawing (a)/ are more easier than (b)/ Geography and Social Studies. (c)/No error (d)
- Of all the friends (a)/ I have had (b)/ he is the most helpful and less arrogant. (c)/ No error (d)
- My uncle forbade me (a)/ not to go through (b)/ the contents of his letter. (c)/ No error (d)
EXPLANATIONS of the given above set for practice
- (b) ‘No fewer than’ should be replaced by ‘no less than’ to make the sentence meaningful.
- (a) ‘A few’ would be used in the sentence instead of ‘Few’.
- (b) The usage of ‘worth watching documentary’ is incorrect. The correct usage will be ‘documentary worth watching’.
- (b) ‘Least worried’ should be replaced by ‘less worried’ to make the sentence meaningful.
- (a) ‘Most perfect’ should be replaced by ‘perfect’ to make the sentence meaningful.
- (b) ‘Wiser’ in the given sentence should be replaced by ‘more wise’.
- (c) To make the sentence grammatically correct, we need to add ‘other’ after the word ‘any’.
- (c) The word ‘any’ in the given sentence is not needed. So, we will delete ‘any’ from the sentence.
- (c) ‘More successful’ is going to be replaced by ‘most successful’ to make the sentence meaningful.
- (b) ‘Beautiful’ should be changed to ‘most beautiful’ to make the sentence grammatically correct.
- (b) ‘Few’ means ‘nothing’. So, we will use ‘a few’ in the given sentence to make it meaningful.
- (b) ‘Of all’ is used instead of ‘than anybody’ to make the sentence meaningful.
- (c) ‘Somewhat’ does not make sense with ‘anger’. So, we would use ‘some’ instead of ‘somewhat’.
- (b) ‘Elder to me’ would be the correct usage.
- (a) ‘Little’ should be replaced by ‘A little’.
- (a) Adjectives like ‘ideal’ do not have degrees. So, we would remove ‘most’ from the sentence.
- (b) ‘Other’ should be added be added after ‘any’ to make the sentence grammatically correct.
- (a) ‘Latest’ should be replaced by ‘last’ to make the sentence meaningful.
- (c) ‘Latter’ should be changed to ‘later’ to make the sentence correct.
- (c) ‘Neither is the intelligent’ should be replaced by ‘Neither she is intelligent’.
- (a) ‘More’ does not go with ‘better’. So, we remove ‘all the more’ from the sentence.
- (a) We need to change ‘bitter’ to ‘bitterly’ to make the sentence meaningful.
- (a) We should add ‘other’ after ‘No’ to make the sentence grammatically correct.
- (a) We should add ‘other’ after ‘no’ to make the sentence grammatically correct.
- (a) ‘Less’ should be replaced by ‘least’ to make the sentence grammatically correct.
- (a) ‘Honest’ needs to be changed to ‘most honest’ because as per the rule all the adjectives in sentences should be of the same degree.
- (c) When two things are compared the comparative degree is used. So, we would change ‘worst’ to ‘worse’.
- (b) ‘More’ does not go with ‘easier’. So, we would remove it.
- (c) ‘Less’ should be replaced by ‘least’ to make the sentence correct.
- (b) As two negative words cannot go together. So, we would remove ‘not’. (‘Forbade’ is also a negative word)