CDS study material with sectionwise Solved Papers and practice set
CDS Entrance Examination: The “Combined Defence Service” (CDS) Examination is conducted twice a year by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) to induct officers in the Indian Defence Forces; Indian Army; Indian Navy and Indian Airforce.
PRONOUN and its practice set for CDS entrance paper
Words used in place of nouns are called pronouns. They are used to avoid the repetition of nouns in a sentence. E.g. I saw a boy on the roof. He seemed to recognize me.
In this example, the pronoun ‘he’ is used instead of repeating the noun ‘boy’ which is underlined.
Kinds of Pronoun with definition and example for best preparation of CDS
This pronoun refers to or is related to the words which are used in place of nouns referring to person.
Personal pronouns have the following characteristics
Ist Person: The one(s) speaking (I, me, my, mine, we, us, our, ours).
IInd Person: The one(s) spoken to (You, your, yours).
IIIrd Person: The one(s) spoken about (he, him, his, she, her, hers, its, they, their, theirs).
|Objective Case||Possessive Case|
Rules of Personal Pronouns
A Personal pronoun must be of the same number, gender and person as the noun for which it stands,
i.e. antecedent should agree with the noun.
e.g. – I am not one of those who believe everything I /they see.
- Every man must love his/her/their
- He is one of the best boys that have played here.
The component of the verb to be (is, am, are, was, were, will, shall), when it is expressed by a pronoun, should be in the nominative case.
To be means
Is: He, She, It
Are: We, You, they
Was: I, He, She, It
Were: We, You, They
Will: You, He, She, It, They
Shall: I, We
e.g. – It is me/ I.
- It will be he/ him who is going to win.
- Was it her/she who did it for you?
If a pronoun is used as the object of the verb or of a preposition, it should be in the objective case.
e.g. – He was shouting at I /me.
- He was teaching he/ him.
- The sweets are to be distributed among you, him and me.
Objective case is used after the following words let, like, but, etc.
e.g. – It is no one else but he/him who has done the crime.
- He likes me.
- Let him come inside.
Words such as as good as, as soon as, as beautiful as, as intelligent as, etc, are followed by nominative case.
e.g. – When it comes to providing news, no one is as good as he.
- In studies he is as good as he.
2, 3, 1, Rule The second person should come before the third and the third person before the first. This case applies to singular pronouns only.
e.g. – I, You and He are good friends.
- You, He and I are good friends.
1, 2, 3 Rule 2, 3, 1 becomes 1, 2, 3 when we are talking about plural pronouns.
e.g. – We, You and They will go to the party.
- We, You and They will take dinner at our/ their/your
Exception When it comes to confessing something or committing a crime, 2, 3, 1 gets changed to 1, 2, 3 for all types of pronouns.
e.g. – I, you and he will be punished for the crime.
When a pronoun stands for a collective noun, it must be in the neuter gender. But if the collective noun denotes separation of division. The pronoun used separation or division, the pronoun used is plural.
e.g. – The jury gave its decision unanimously.
- The jury were divided in their opinion.
When two or more nouns are joined by ‘and’, the pronoun used would be plural.
e.g. – Ram and Mohan went to their school.
- Suresh and his family members have completed their work.
Case I Separate persons, the pronoun used for them must be plural.
Case II Same person, the pronoun used for them must be singular.
(Hint If a single article is used before the nouns, the verb and the pronoun are both singular, because the reference is to a singular person only).
e.g. – The Comptroller and Auditor General has/have submitted his/their report.
- The Chairman and the Managing Director has/have submitted his/their report.
When two or more singular nouns are joined by or, either-or or neither-nor, the pronoun and the verb should be singular.
e.g. – Either Raj or Amar is doing his duty.
Whenever one singular and one plural noun are used with either-or or neither-nor, the plural noun always comes second. In this case, the plural noun always comes second. In this case, the verb and the pronoun both become plural.
e.g. – Neither Amit nor his friends was/ were present in their house.
While writing question tag, the subject and verb must be according to the main sentence.
e.g. – Our minister is intelligent, isn’t he?
- The boys are not enjoying themselves, are they?
- They went to Delhi yesterday, didn’t they?
Reflexive pronouns are pronouns that refer back to the subject of the sentence. They end in-‘self’, as in singular form, of-‘selves’ in plural form.
e.g. – Myself, themselves, yourself, ourselves etc.
Rules of Reflexive Pronouns
The reflexive pronoun is used with the following words absent, avail, apply, pride, resign, acquit, revenge, exert, adapt, adjust, etc.
e.g. – He absented himself from the class.
- He acquitted himself admirably in the meeting.
With the following words, reflexive pronouns are not used: bathe, feed, hide, turn, move, rest, qualify, stop, etc.
e.g. – We bathed in the river.
- We fed at the motel.
A reflexive pronoun cannot be used as a substitute for the subject.
e.g. – Amit and I/myself were present on the site.
- I / Myself will see to it that you do not get the job.
The pronouns that are used to point out the objects to which they refer are called demonstrative pronouns like these, that, those, such, it, this, etc.
e.g. – That is the book I was looking for.
Rules of Demonstrative Pronouns
Do not commit the error of omission by forgetting to use ‘that’ (for plural use ‘those’).
e.g. – The Mumbai Film Studio is bigger than Noida. (False)
- The Mumbai Film Studio is bigger than that of Noida. (True)
Pronoun ‘it’ comes before the phrase or clause to which it refers, whereas ‘this’ follows the phrase or clause it refers to.
e.g. – This is true India has won the match. (False)
- It is true that India has won the match. (True)
When a pronoun refers to a person or a thing in a general way, but not to any person or thing in particular, it is called indefinite pronoun like any, anyone, none, someone, everyone, everybody, one, etc.
Rules of Indefinite Pronouns
One, of used in a sentence, always repeats itself.
e.g. – One must respect his/one’s country for his /one’s sake.
- One must obey their / one’s elders.
When we are not talking specifically about females, only masculine gender is used.
e.g. – Everyone was getting ready for his/her show.
- Everyone of the Miss India contestants was getting ready for has show.
‘Either’ is replaced by ‘anyone’ when we are talking about more than two persons or things. Same is the case with ‘none’ or ‘neither’.
e.g. – I couldn’t contact either/anyone of the three.
- Anyone of the three can come in.
- None/Neither of his body parts is defective.
‘Each other’ should be used in speaking of two persons or things, ’one another’ in speaking of more than two persons or things.
e.g. – We should love one another.
This pronoun refers or relates to some noun which comes after this pronoun. Besides, it acts as a conjunction also because it connects two sentences.
e.g.- Who, whom, which, where, etc.
- He is the boy who has topped the class.
Rules of Relative Pronouns
‘Who’ is used for subject and ‘Whom’ for object.
e.g.- Who are you?
- Whom were you talking to?
- She is the girl who/whom I met in the train.
The relative pronoun that is preferred to ‘who’ or ‘which’ in the following cases
Case I After adjectives in the superlative degree.
e.g. – It is the best movie which/ that I have ever seen.
- It is the best food which/that I have had for years.
Case II After the following words all, same, any, only, nothing, the only, etc.
e.g. – It is the same book which/that I saw in the market yesterday.
- All that glitters is not gold.
- It is not for nothing that he studied Psychology.
Case III After the interrogative pronouns, ‘who’ and ‘what’.
e.g. – Who is the girl which/ that comes in your dreams?
- What is it that you want?
Case IV After two antecedents, one denoting a person and the other denoting an animal or a thing.
e.g. – The man and his dog that had entered the school were turned out.
The relative pronoun should be placed as near as possible to its antecedent.
e.g. – The office was located in the heart of the town which dad beautiful interior decoration. (False)
- The office, which had beautiful interior decoration, was located in the center of the town. (True)
The relative pronoun ‘What’ is used without any antecedent.
e.g. – I mean that/ what I say.
- That/ What cannot be cured must be endured.
‘Whose is used to refer to persons only; ‘of which’ is used while referring to lifeless objects.
e.g. – I have a friend whose father is a doctor.
- I saw a watch, the dial of which was made of gold.
The interrogative pronouns are used for making queries or asking questions. The pronouns ‘who’, ‘what’ and ‘which’ are used as interrogative pronouns.
Rules of Interrogative Pronouns
‘What’ is used in broad sense. While ‘Which’ is used in the specific sense.
e.g. – What are you doing these days?
- Which institute have you joined for coaching?
‘Which’ is used in place of ‘who’ and ‘what’ when we are referring to a choice between two or among more than two thing or persons.
e.g. – Of the two brothers who/ which is more intelligent?
- Who/Which is your mother in the crowd?
SPOTTING THE ERRORS
SET 2 with solution for entrance exam of CDS
ERRORS OF PRONOUNS
Directions (Q. 1-30) Which part of the given sentences has an error? In case, there is no error, choose option (d).
- The master did not know (a)/ who of the servants (b)/broke the glass. (c)/No error (d)
- The ruling party stood (a)/ for implementation of the bill (b)/ and was ready to stake their political existence. (c)/ No error (d)
- Wherever they go (a)/ the Indians easily adapt to (b)/ local circumstances. (c)/No error (d)
- It is not easy for anyone to command (a)/ respect from one’s friends as well as critics (b)/ as Dr. Neil did for his integrity and honesty. (c)/ No error (d)
- Mahatma Gandhi taught us (a)/ that one should respect (b)/the religions of others as much as his own. (c)/No error (d)
- He, You and I (a)/shall manage (b)/ this problem together. (c)/No error (d)
- Was it him (a)/who got injured (b)/in an accident this morning?/No error (d)
- As soon as he (a)/ saw his mother (b)/ he ran to her and embraced. (c)/No error (d)
- Due to me being a newcomer (a)/I was unable to get a house (b)/ suitable for my wife and me. (c)/ No error (d)
- The audience (a)/ are requested (b)/ to be in its seats. (c)/ No error (d)
- A scientist must follow (a)/ his hunches and his data (b)/wherever it may lead. (c)/No error (d)
- The number of vehicles (a)/ plying on this road (a)/is more than on the main road. (c)/ No error (d)
- Being a destitute (a)/ I admitted him (b)/ to an old people’s home. (c)/No error (d)
- One should make (a)/ his best efforts if one wishes to achieve (b)/ success in this organization. (c)/No error (d)
- May I (a)/know who you want (b)/ to see please? (c)/ No error (d)
- Our is the only country (a)/ in the world that can boast of (b)/ unity in diversity. (c)/ No error (d)
- Last summer he went (a)/ to his uncle’s village (b)/and enjoyed very much. (c)/ No error (d)
- If I were him (a)/ I would have taught (b)/ those cheats a lesson. (c)/ No error (d)
- Those sort of people (a)/usually do not (b)/earn fame in society. (c)/ No error (d)
- Had I come (a)/ to know about his difficulties (b)/ I would have certainly helped. (c)/ NO error (d)
- One of them (a)/ forgot to take their bag (b)/ from the school. (c)/ No error (d)
- Civil servants should (a)/acquit efficiently (b)/ in the service of a common man.(c)/ No error (d)
- Avail every chance that comes your way (a)/ lest you should (b)/ repent in the long run. (c)/No error (d)
- Let Raj and she (a)/complete this job (b)/ as they like to do it. (c)/No error (d)
- It was with great difficulty (a)/ that each of the brothers (b)/could get their share of property. (c)/No error. (d)
- Do you know (a)/ whom all (b)/ are inside the room? (c)/ No error (d)
- They that run (a)/ after fame and money (b)/ are likely to be disappointed. (c)/ No error (d)
- One should (a)/take care of one’s belongings (b)/himself. (c)/No error (d)
- God helps those (a)/ who helps (b)/ themselves. (c)/ No error (d)
- He and her (a)/ went to the party (b)/in the hotel. (c)/ No error (d)
- (b) As the sentence refers to a choice among more than two persons (servants), ‘which’ will be used in place of ‘who’.
- (c) When a pronoun stands for a collective noun (‘ruling party’ in the sentence) it must be in the neuter gender. Hence, ‘its’ will be used in place of ‘their’.
- (b) As the sentence refers to a particular ser of people (Indians), it will contain a reflexive pronoun ‘themselves’ after ‘adapt’.
- (b)In this sentence, the pronoun ‘one’s’ is missing before the word ‘critics’. Hence, we will add ‘one’s’ before ‘critics’.
- (c)The given sentence has an indefinite pronoun ‘one’. As per the rule,’his’ should be replaced with ‘one, s’ to make the sentence grammatically correct.
- (a) As per the rule, the second person should come before the third and the third person comes before the first. So, the correct order will be: ‘You, he and I….. ‘
- (a)As per the rule, the component of the verb ‘to be’ (was) when expressed by a pronoun should be in the nominative case. Hence, ‘him’ in the sentence will be replaced be ‘he’.
- (c)The sentence is incomplete as it does not answer the question ‘whom did he embrace?’ So, we will add ‘her’ at the end of the sentence.
- (a)The pronoun ‘me’ used in part (a) of the sentence is incorrect. It should be replaced by ‘I’.
- (c)As the sentence refers to living beings (‘audience’), the pronoun ‘its’ will be replaced by ‘their’.
- (c)The pronoun ‘it’ is incorrectly used in the sentence. It should be replaced by ‘they’ as the sentence refers to ‘his hunches’ and ‘his data’.
- (c)The sentence does not have ‘that’ after ‘than’. So, to make the sentence meaningful ‘that’ should be added after ‘than’.
- (a)The sentence does not convey the intended meaning as it has ‘He’ missing in the beginning. So, the correct sentence would start as ‘He being a destitute ……..’.
- (b)As the sentence begins with an Indefinite pronoun ‘one’, it should not have ‘his’ in the sentence. Hence, we replace ‘his’ by ‘one’s’ to make the sentence correct.
- (b)The pronoun ‘who’ would be replaced by ‘whom’ to make the sentence meaningful.
- (a)The reflexive pronoun ‘Ours’ will be used in the sentence instead of ‘Our’ to make the sentence correct.
- (c)The reflexive pronoun ‘himself’ would be used after the sentence meaningful.
- (a)The verb ‘were’ when expressed by a pronoun, it should be in the nominative case. Hence,’he’ would be used instead of ‘him’.
- (a) ‘Sort of’ is incorrect. It should be replaced by ‘sorts of’ to make the sentence correct.
- (c)The sentence is incomplete as it does not answer the question ‘helped whom?’. So, we add ‘him’ at the end of the sentence.
- (b)‘Their’ should be replaced by ‘his’ to make the sentence correct.
- (b)The pronoun ‘themselves’ should come after ‘acquit’.
- (a) ‘Yourself of’ needs to be added after ‘Avail’ to make the sentence correct.
- (a)‘She’ should be replaced by ‘her’ to make the sentence correct.
- (c)‘Each of’ takes a singular pronoun. So.’their’ should be replaced by ‘his’.
- (b)‘Whom’ should be replaced by ‘who’.
- (a)‘They’ needs to be replaced by ‘Those’.
- (c)‘Himself’ should be replaced by ‘oneself’.
- (b) ‘Helps’ should be replaced by ‘help’ to make the sentence grammatically correct.
- (a) ‘Her’ would be replaced by ‘she’ to make the sentence error free.